So far, we have discussed what are the various incomes, allowances and perquisites which are exempt and which are to be included in gross salary. From the gross salary so computed, the following three deductions are allowed under section 16:
(1) Standard deduction [Section 16(ia)]
(2) Entertainment allowance [Section 16(ii)]
(3) Tax on employment [Section 16(iii)]
(1) Standard deduction [Clause (ia) inserted in section 16]
In order to provide relief to salaried taxpayers, standard deduction has been reintroduced w.e.f. assessment year 2019-20 by inserting clause (ia) in section 16. Thus while computing the income chargeable under the head "salary" besides other deductions provided in section 16(ii) and (iii), the following deduction shall also be provided:
(ia) a deduction of ₹50,000 (₹40,000 for A.Y. 2019-20)
the amount of the salary,
whichever is less.
(2) Entertainment Allowance [Section 16(ii)]
As already discussed, entertainment allowance is first included in computation of the gross salary. A deduction is then allowed under section 16(ii) if conditions prescribed have been satisfied.
(3) Tax on Employment (Professional Tax) [Section 16(iii)]
As per the Constitution of India, the State Governments/Local Authorities are empowered to make law and collect taxes on professions, trades, callings and employment.
As per section 16(iii), a deduction of any sum paid by the assessee, on account of a tax on employment, shall be allowed. The deduction will be allowed in the year in which the tax is actually paid by the employee.
1. Where professional tax is paid by the employer on behalf of the employee, it will first be included in his gross salary as a perquisite, being a monetary obligation of the employee discharged by the employer. Thereafter, a deduction on account of such professional tax will be allowed to the employee from his gross salary.
2. Professional tax due but not paid shall not be allowed as deduction.
Amendment made by the Finance Act, 2020
If an employee opts to be taxed as per the new alternative regime under section 115BAC, he will not be entitled to claim deductions under all the clauses of section 16 discussed above.